Logic, what is it & how to use it

Logic, the study of principles of correct reasoning

“Very often our beliefs are not our own, but ingrained by our parents.

– Basic concepts of Logic
– Notion of an Argument
– Structure and Evaluation of Arguments
– Deductive and Inductive Arguments
– Fallacies
– Necessary and Contingent Statements

 

As more information is released its becoming harder to hold a valid and sound argument on many controversial issues. To become better educated about the world around us we have to cut through the bullshit, opinions, misinformation and use the most accurate and up to date information to create  Unfortntualey most of us don’t have the time to do the work. Project Ben, aim is to cut through the sea of opinions and give you the facts so you can get a more solid, sound and valid position on issues of today.
First we have to dissect the process of creating a point of view.

 


 

What is an argument?

Reasoning is presented in the form of arguments composed of two components, the premise and conclusion. Simple.

Conclusion

What is argued for

Premise

Reasons given for believing the conclusion

 


Argument Evaluation

What makes a good argument?

One of the fundamental task of logic is to develop methods of evaluating arguments. Everyone provides reason for why they believe their conclusion, the issues is whether or not the reason are actually good ones. An argument has to be supported by good reasons for supporting the conclusion to be a sound argument. A sound argument must have premises that are true and the conclusion must logically follow the premises.

Logical Relationships

Different ways in which the premises of an argument might be logically related to the conclusion. How strong of a claim can you make about the conclusion.

– Necessarily True
– Probably True
– Possibly True

 

 


Kinds of Arguments

Different ways in which the conclusion of an argument might “logically follow” from the premise.

Deductive Argument

When we reason deductively we are committed to the claim that the conclusion follows from the premise as a logically necessary consequence.

VALID vs INVALID

If the premises are true -> the conclusion must be true
(If conclusion is true then its a valid argument // otherwise, its invalid)

 

Inductive Argument

Inductive arguments are based of a weaker claim. Not that the conclusion must follow the premises but the conclusion follows a probably consequence.

STRONG vs WEAK

If the argument is strong that means the conclusion is related to the premises in such as way that if the premises were true, the conclusion would probably be true too; otherwise, the argument is weak.

 


Inductive Reasoning

 

Inductive Analogy

An inductive argument in which the conclusion is reached about one case on the basis of how that case resembles others.
Fallacy – False Analogy

Inductive Generalization

Conclusion is reached on the basis of one or more sample cases.
Fallacy – Hasty Generaliztion

Inference to the Best Explanation

To believe something because it best explains the facts.
Fallacy – post hoc ergo propter hoc

 


Fallacies

 

A mistake in reasoning. By studying fallacies you will be able to better recognize mistakes in reasoning more effectively.

Composition

Division

Begging the Question

Argument from Ignorance

 


Necessary and Contingent Statements

 

Defining characteristic of statements is that they are either TRUE or FALSE. Some statements are true or false simple because of what they mean. They are called necessary statements, they are said to be a priori (prior to experience). We know their true value independently of experience and observation.

 

Contingent statements are TRUE or FALSE not simply because they mean but because of what the world is like. Contingent statements are knowable only after experience (posteriori) because we can know what the world is like only through experience and observation, not just by understanding what statements mean.

 


 

Square of Opposition

 

Contrary – Both can be FALSE, but both cant be TRUE.

Subcontrary – Both can be TRUE but both can’t be FALSE